Traditiony » Tradicija | 71 Hobotnice Svetog Save Ispisujući svojevrsne srednjovekovne manastirske pravilnike, Sveti Sava posebno sugeriše šta se i kad sme jesti. Naročitu zanimljivost u tim dragocenim spisima predstavlja insistiranje na konzumiranju hobotnica. Ako prihvatimo da to nije neobično kada je reč o Hilandaru, budući da se nalazi u blizini mora, postaje gotovo misteriozno kad se hobotnice pojave i u monaškom jelovniku Studenice. Međutim, kad se ima u vidu da monah treba da se uzdrži od konzumiranja namirnica koje podrazumevaju krv i vatru, te da se riba jede izuzetno retko, upravo zbog krvi, uporednim uvidom u ishranu ondašnjeg vizantijskog monaštva postaje jasno da su hobotnice, lignje i školjke često na monaškoj trpezi, i to ne kao ekskluzivne delicije, već kao ona hrana koja ne sadrži krv. lation, and bee-keeping was practically the first profession in domestic food production. Sources clearly show us that the tables of rulers and prominent people were also adorned with seafood and sea fish, figs, almonds, bitter oranges, lemons, olive oil and expensive wines and spices, as well as sugar that was worth as much as gold. From the 12th century, nobles in Ras ate peaches, and the soil of Serbian lands has since time immemorial been rich in various types of forest fruits, mushrooms and game. Findings from individual waste pits prove that lamb dominated in mountainous regions, but sources also indicate that locals happily reared pigs, while salted and dried meats were prestigious Serbian exports during the Middle Ages. Food was cooked in pots and usually baked on a hearth, in an open fire, and less commonly in specially built ovens. As a rule, utensils used for preparing food were made of ceramics, most similar to the one made by skilled potters even today, while iron or bronze cauldrons, such as the one found in Ras, were quite exceptional. Wider use of tin-bronze vessels began during the 14th century, when Serbia’s medieval lands strengthened economically. Dishes made of glazed and unglazed ceramics also dominated on tables that were covered in the finest linen tablecloths for special occasions. It was only with the strengthening of Serbian rulers in the 14th century, or with the formation of powerful and rich urban centres at the beginning of the 15th century, such as those in Belgrade, Novo Brdo or Smederevo, that incomparably more luxurious pots and dishes began appearing on tables, with a special emphasis on expensive wine goblets made of precious metal. One completely exceptional example is the so-called goblet of Emperor Dušan, which is presumed to have been ordered at a craft workshop in Kotor. At the peak of the country’s power, in the late 14th and early 15th centuries, luxurious tableware arrived on the ruling tables of the Serbian Despotate from Germany, Hungary and Italy. These were mostly dishes made of glass and metal. There is no doubt that a sense of order was known at the tables of Serbian rulers and dignitaries, just as that was known at the tables of ordinary people. It is well known from comparative medieval sources that the diners at feasts were usually all men, with women joining them only on extremely rare occasions, and that such exceptions were made only when it came to lady rulers. In the case of public, general feasts of the masses, men were served first, followed by women, and finally children. There was also a kind of hierarchy at large feasts, in terms of the arrangement of tables, or the quantity and quality of food presented to members of different classes. It was also a practise for the ruler to determine when, in which quantities and what sort of food would be distributed to the poor after great celebrations. Alongside the hierarchy and fine clothing, the feast had another special dimension – music, song and entertainment. Musicians, acrobats, fire eaters, beast tamers, dancers and actors were indispensable participants in the public spectacle during bazaars, but also during wedding celebrations and other feasts. Even particularly gleeful rulers, such as Stefan the First-Crowned, would take a gusle fiddle in hands and play and sing to guests. SAINT SAVA’SOCTOPUS When writing a kind of guideline for medieval monasteries, Saint Sava provided specific suggestions on what should be eaten andwhen. Particularly interesting in these precious writings is his insistence on the consumption of octopuses. If we accept that this isn’t unusual when it comes to Hilandar, given that it is located near the sea, it becomes almost mysterious when octopuses appear on themonasticmenu of StudenicaMonastery. However, when we consider that amonk should refrain fromconsuming foods that involve blood and fire, and that fish is eaten extremely rarely, precisely due to the blood, comparative insight into the diet of the Byzantinemonasticismof the timemakes it clear that octopuses, squid and shellfish were often found on themonastic table, and not as exclusive delicacies, rather as types of food that do not contain blood. vek je vreme kada sa ekonomskim jačanjem zemlje počinje korišćenje kalajisanog bronzanog posuđa The 14th century was when the use of tin-bronze cast dishes began, with the country’s economic strengthening 14.