Januar

70 | Tradicija » Traditions TAB L E SPR EAD OF MED I EVA L SER BS StefanNemanjaate meat, while Saint Sava ate octopus A good ruler had to eat plenty of meat prepared by roasting or frying, because only the combination of blood and fire ensures the power of a ruler and warrior. For monks, on the other hand, different rules applied Approach, comrades and brothers, come with me, to cheer us at the last feast with you, and I will depart from the table with meat, because I will not gather at such a great and multi-seated table with you again, ever - these were the words uttered by the great prefect Stefan Nemanja in 1195 in Ras, addressing his people gathered for a banquet organised to mark the occasion of the handing over of power to his son Stefan the First-Crowned, as the monk Teodosije recounts in his famous “Life of Saint Sava”. Although this unusual farewell from rich meaty spreads clearly suggests that Nemanja is not only relinquishing power, but is also preparing to take a monastic vow, and monks in the Middle Ages didn’t eat meat even during days when it wasn’t Lent; a better connoisseur of the medieval comprehension of food will not overlook the fact that by giving up meat Nemanja was giving up his earthly authority. Specifically, according to the determinants of the Middle Ages, a good ruler had to eat plenty of meat in order to preserve his power to rule, chivalrousness and other qualities. And that wasn’t just any meat, rather the highest quality meats, prepared by roasting or frying, because only the combination of blood and fire ensures the power of a ruler and warrior. Boiled meats, offal, small birds, rabbits and processed products were for the farmers and craftsmen - the ruler and soldiers ate roast meats! Alongside lentils, berries, wild peas, cabbage, onions and garlic, dock leaves, radishes, beets, millet, barley, oats, rye and in later periods also rice and corn, which arrived in our area with the Turkish conquests of the mid-15th and early 16th centuries, the population of Serbian lands in the Middle Ages consumed meat, milk and dairy products. Cheese made from goat’s or sheep’s milk, just like sour milk, was a product that foreign merchants would gladly accept instead of money in bartering with the local popumenitogmetala. Sasvim izuzetan primer predstavlja takozvana čaša cara Dušana, za koju se pretpostavlja da je naručena u nekoj zanatskoj radionici u Kotoru. Na vrhuncu moći, krajem 14. i početkom 15. veka, luksuzno trpeznoposuđenavladarske stolove despotovine stiže iz Nemačke, Ugarske i Italije. Uglavnom je reč o posuđu od stakla i metala. Nema sumnje da se i za trpezomsrpskih vladara i visokodostojnika, baš kao i za onom običnogčoveka, znaored. Izuporednih srednjovekovnih izvora dobro je poznato da su na gozbama po pravilu obedovalimuškarci, odnosno da su im se žene priključivale u vanredno retkim prilikama i da su se takvi izuzeci pravili jedino kada je reč o vladarkama. U slučaju javnih, opštenarodnih gozbi, prvo su se služili muškarci, za njima žene i naposletku deca. Na velikimgozbama postojala je i svojevrsna hijerarhija u smislu rasporeda stolova, odnosno količine i kvaliteta hrane koja se iznosila pred pripadnike različitih staleža. Praksa je bila da vladar odredi kada će se, u kojoj količini i šta od namirnica podeliti sirotinji nakon velikih slavlja. Pored hijerarhije i fine odeće, gozba je imala još jednu naročitu dimenziju – muziku, pesmu i zabavu. Svirači, akrobati, gutači vatre, krotitelji zveri, plesači i glumci bili su neizostavni učesnici javnog spektakla tokom vašara, ali i tokom svadbenih i drugih gozbi. Čak je posebno razdragan vladar, poput Stefana Prvovenčanog, uzimao u ruke gusle, pa i sam svirao i pevao svojim gostima. TRADICI JA / TRADI T IONS Na dvoru su postojale viljuške, dvozube, ali ne od zlata, već od kovanog gvožđa, kojima su se jeli kolači i voće pre negomeso ili neka druga, robusnija hrana At court there weredoubletoothed forks, but notmadeof gold, rather ofwrought iron, whichwere used toeat cakes and fruit before meat or some other,more robust food

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